Digital Marketing & E-commerce 

Digital Marketing & E-commerce


A/B testing: A method of testing where two versions of content with a single differing variable are compared to determine which yields better results
Abandoned cart: When a potential customer adds an item to their cart, but doesn’t complete the purchase
Abandoned cart email: A follow-up email sent to customers who added an item to their cart but didn’t complete the purchase
Accessibility: Considering the needs of people with disabilities when products, services, and facilities are built or modified, making them usable by people of all abilities
Acquisition email: An email sent to acquire new customers
Ad auction: A process that determines the best ad to show to a person at a given point in time
Ad extension: A Google Ads feature that shows additional information about the business, such as website links, a phone number, or address
Ad formats: Elements such as text, videos, images, digital content ads, and more that make up a Google Ad
Ad group: A group of ads that is organized by a group of keywords
Ad spend: How much a company spends directly on advertisements
Agency: An outside partner that fulfills a company’s digital marketing and advertising needs
Alt text: A brief, written description of an image with the primary purpose of assisting

individuals who are visually impaired     
Anchor text: The visible text in a hyperlink
Applause rate: The number of approval actions—such as likes, mentions, Retweets, or favorites—that a post receives relative to the total number of followers
Area chart: Represents data in the same way as a line chart, but with the space under the line filled in to form a visual area
Artificial intelligence (AI): A field developing intelligent machines and software that simulate human thought or work
Attribution: Assigns credit for conversions from ads, last clicks, or other touch points along a user’s path to conversion completion
Attribution project: Organization for macro and micro conversions in Google Analytics
Automated bidding strategy: A Google Ads feature that automatically sets a bid for an ad based on an ad’s likelihood to result in a click or conversion that helps achieve a specific goal
Autonomous marketing: Uses real-time analytics to automate marketing activities
Average daily budget: The average amount set for each ad campaign on a per-day basis
Average order value (AOV): The sum of individual order amounts divided by the number of orders
Average session duration: Reported in seconds, a calculation that divides the total duration of all sessions by the number of sessions
Awareness stage: The first stage of the marketing funnel, when a potential customer first becomes aware of the product or service                                           


Backlink: A link that points to a website from another site
Behavioral data: Refers to information about the actions a customer takes—or doesn’t take—when it comes to shopping on a website
Best sellers report: A report in Google Merchant Center that provides information about the most popular brands and products used in Shopping ads and free listings
Bid: The amount a marketer is willing to spend each time a potential customer clicks their ad or calls their business
Bid modification
: Bidding a percentage more or less than a starting bid
Bidding strategy: Tells an advertiser how much to pay for each user action related to an ad
Big data: A field in analytics that systematically mines and extracts information from very large datasets for insights
Big Query: Google’s cloud-based data warehouse solution
Blog: A discussion or informational website published on the internet consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries
Blogging: Refers to self-published writing that lives online           
BOPIS: An acronym for “buy online, pick up in store”
Bounce rate: The percentage of website visitors who view one page and then leave the site
Brand: How a business or organization is perceived by the public
Branding: To promote a product or service by identifying it with a particular brand
Brand advocacy: Measures the number of customers who promote a brand through word-of-mouth marketing or other methods
Brand awareness: How familiar people are with a particular business or product
Brand awareness metrics: Metrics that measure the attention a brand received across all social media platforms during a reporting period
Brand equity: The value consumers attribute to one brand’s offerings when compared with similar products from another brand
Brand evangelists: Customers who are so passionate about a product or service that they enthusiastically promote it to others   
Brand identity: The combination of elements that inform how people perceive a brand            
Brand position statement: Outlines exactly what a company does and for whom, and what makes it different from competitors

Brand safety: Keeping a brand’s reputation safe when they advertise online
Brand voice: The distinct personality a brand takes on in its communications
Brand voice guidelines: Describes the way a brand should be presented in writing
Branded content: Any post that features a third-party product, brand, or sponsor
Breadcrumbs: A row of internal links at the top or bottom of the page that allows visitors to quickly navigate back to a previous section or the homepage
Brick-and-mortar: A traditional retail store with a specific location where customers can come to shop
Broad match: A keyword match type in Google Ads that shows ads when someone searches for a term related to a keyword
Broken link: A link that leads to a webpage that no longer exists
Bucket testing: (refer to A/B testing)
Budget spend: How much is allocated to or spent on a campaign
Business goal: A desired aim, achievement, or outcome for a business
Business-to-business (B2B): Refers to when businesses sell products or services to other businesses (when businesses purchase from each other)
Business-to-consumer (B2C): Refers to when businesses sell products or services to consumers (when consumers purchase from businesses)                     



Call to action: An instruction that tells the customer what to do next
Campaign: A plan of action for how a set of one or more ad groups that share a budget, location targeting, and other settings will be distributed online
Cart abandonment: When a customer adds an item to their cart, but doesn’t complete the purchase
Cart abandonment rate: The percentage of customers who add a product to their shopping cart and leave the site without completing their purchase
Cell: A position in a spreadsheet with a column and row designation; for example, cell A2 is the unique position in column A and row 2
Change management: Methods, practices, approaches, and processes that organizations take to ensure changes are implemented smoothly
Chatbot: A programmed system that responds to common customer questions
Chronological feed: A social media stream that displays the latest published content first
Click: An interaction with an ad and online user
Click-and-mortar: A type of retail store that sells online as well as in a brick-and-mortar store
Click-to-open rate: The percentage of email recipients who clicked on one or more links in an email
Closed captions: Subtitles that are overlaid on video and can be turned on and off by users
Color contrast ratios: Measures the luminescence (or brightness) of a lighter color against the luminescence of a darker color
Comma-separated values (CSV): A file format in which a comma is placed between each data value in the file
Competition: The other sellers that exist already in the market
Complaint rate: The percentage of complaints recipients send to mailbox providers about receiving an email
Confidence interval: The range of possible values after accounting for the margin of error
Confidence level: How likely an experiment’s range of results would contain all results if the test ran longer; most researchers select a 95% confidence level
Consideration stage: The second stage of the marketing funnel, when a marketer provides customer with more detailed information
Consumer-to-business (C2B): Refers to when individuals (consumers) sell products or services to businesses (when businesses purchase from consumers)
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C): Refers to when individuals (consumers) sell products or services to other consumers (when consumers purchase from each other)
Contact page: A common webpage on websites that provides information for visitors to contact the organization or individual hosting the website
Content buckets: Categories to group marketing content
Content marketing: A marketing technique that focuses on creating and distributing valuable content to a specific audience
Continuous metrics: Metrics that are measured and change over time
Conversion: The completion of an activity that contributes to the success of a business
Conversion paths: A feature in Google Analytics that enables a marketer to view the first and last touchpoints before conversion and touchpoints in between

Conversion rate: The percentage of users or website visitors who completed a desired action, such as clicking on a link in an email or purchasing a product
Conversion rate optimization: The process of increasing the percentage of users or website visitors who complete a desired action
Conversion stage: The third stage of the marketing funnel, when a marketer capitalizes on the interest people have already shown
Cookie: A small file stored on devices that tracks user behavior and analyzes traffic
Copy: Any written material that encourages a customer to buy a product or service
Cost per acquisition (CPA): The average cost of acquiring a potential customer
Cost per action (CPA): The amount a marketer pays when someone completes a desired action
Cost per click (CPC): The amount a marketer pays when someone clicks on their ad
Cost per thousand impressions (CPM): The amount a marketer pays for every 1,000 impressions an ad receives
Cost per view (CPV): The amount a marketer pays when a viewer watches a video ad for a minimum amount of time or interacts with it, such as when they click a link embedded in the video
Crawlers: Automated software that crawls (fetches) pages from the web and indexes them
Crawling: The process of finding new or updated webpages
Creatives: Any content that can be promoted in a campaign, such as text, images, GIFs, or videos
Cross-channel attribution: A model in Google Analytics that attributes a percentage of a conversion to all advertising channels with touchpoints
Cross-selling: A sales technique used to encourage customers to spend more by purchasing a product that’s related to what they’re already buying

Curriculum vitae (CV): A document that presents a full history of an applicant’s full academic credentials and professional experience
Custom audiences: A platform feature that allows a marketer to create relevant remarketing campaigns to reach highly-specific groups of people by uploading email lists of existing customers and followers
Customer acquisition: The process of gaining new customers
Customer acquisition cost (CAC): The average cost of acquiring a paying customer
Customer engagement: The interactions and emotional connection between a customer and a brand
Customer journey: The path customers take from learning about a product, to getting questions answered, to making a purchase

Customer journey map: A visualization of the touchpoints a typical customer encounters along their purchase journey
Customer lifetime value (LTV or CLV): The average revenue generated per customer over a certain period of time
Customer persona: Represents a group of similar people in a desirable audience
Customer persona barrier: What is preventing the customer from achieve their goal
Customer persona goal: What the customer wants to achieve
Customer referral: A word-of-mouth initiative that encourages existing customers to introduce their family, friends, and contacts to become new customers
Customer relationship management (CRM) system: Software that helps a business manage and monitor its interactions with existing and potential customers
Customer retention rate: The percentage of customers that a company retains over a certain period of time
Customer satisfaction (CSAT) survey: A tool that measures how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectations
Customer service: The advice and support a company provides to its customers before, during, and after a purchase                                                                                       



Dashboard: A tool to track, analyze, and display KPIs, metrics, and insights dynamically based on interactive user criteria
Data: A collection of facts or information
Data analysis: Examining data to draw conclusions, make predictions, and drive informed decision-making
Data analytics: Monitoring and evaluating data to gain actionable insights
Data anonymization: Techniques to mask or remove personal information from data to protect the identities of people
Data bias: Human error that skews data collection or interpretation of data in a certain direction
Data ethics: The study and evaluation of moral challenges related to data collection and analysis
Data privacy: Rights of individuals under the law to control how their personal information is collected, processed, shared, archived, and deleted
Data-driven attribution: Measures customer engagement with marketing content across channels to understand what is motivating them to take action
Data-ink ratio: The proportion of ink (or pixels in digital content) that is used to present actual data compared to the total amount of ink (or pixels) used in an entire visualization
Data pulling: Collecting data from analytics tools and putting it in a spreadsheet or database
Data reporting: Organizing and summarizing data to track performance across marketing and sales efforts
Data storytelling: Conveying data insights to a specific audience using a clear and compelling narrative
Data visualizations: Graphical representations of data that convey information
Dead stock: Inventory that remains unsold for a long period of time and has little chance of selling in the future
Demand: How much consumers are willing and able to buy a certain product over a given period of time        
Demographic targeting: Delivering an ad based on user information, like age
Demographics: Information specific to the customer, such as age, gender identity, income, family size, occupation, education, and location
Digital advertising: Communication made by a company to promote its brand, product, or service using various platforms and online channels

Digital channel: Any communication method or platform a business can use to reach their target audience online
Digital marketing: The practice of reaching consumers online through digital channels with the aim of turning them into customers
Digital shopping cart: The virtual equivalent of a physical shopping cart
Dimensions: Attributes or characteristics of an event that determine the metrics collected in Google Analytics
Discrete metrics: Metrics that have specific values, can be counted, or are binary—like on/off or true/false settings
Display ad: A visual ad format placed on websites or applications            
Display campaign: A Google Ads tool that allows businesses to place image advertisements across various websites
Domain: The core part of a website’s URL, or internet address
Dropshipping: A fulfillment method in which products are shipped from the supplier directly to the customer
Duration: How long a campaign will run
Dynamic remarketing: A process that allows a company to show previous visitors ads that contain products and services they viewed on the company’s site                                                                                                                                                 


E-commerce: The buying and selling of goods or services using the internet
E-commerce platform: A software application that allows businesses to sell products or services online
E-commerce point-of-sale (POS) system: Software that allows a business to process payment transactions from customers online
E-commerce store: A store that sells its products online
E-commerce strategy
: A working plan to promote an online store and increase its sales
Earned media
: Any positive digital exposure generated through personal or public recommendations
Elevator pitch
: A short, memorable description that explains a concept in an easy-to-understand way
Email body: The text in the main content of an email
Email bounce rate: The percentage of emails sent that could not be delivered to the recipient’s inbox
Email copy: The text in a subject line, preview text, and email
Email marketing: The process of sending messages to a list of existing subscribers to share information, drive sales, or create community
Email marketing provider: A company that offers email marketing or bulk email services
Email marketing report: A collection of KPIs presented to the team and stakeholders to inform them of a campaign’s progress
Email marketing strategy: A set of procedures that a marketer identifies and follows to achieve their desired marketing goals with email advertising
Engagement: How an audience interacts with a brand on social media
Engagement marketing: (refer to experiential marketing)
: An activity that causes data collection to occur in Google Analytics

Evergreen content: Content that will be relevant over a long period of time
Exact match: A keyword match type in Google Ads that shows ads when someone searches for a term that has the same meaning or same intent as a keyword
Experiential marketing: The process of encouraging consumers to not only purchase a brand or product, but to experience it
External link: A link on a website that leads to content on other sites                                                                                                                                                                                                                


Featured snippet: A special box that displays information about a search in the results page
Federated Learning of Cohorts (FLoC): Grouping people together when they have similar browsing characteristics without the use of a unique identifier per browser; may be used for internet-based advertising which is an alternative to using cookies
First click attribution: Assigns all the credit to the first touchpoint that eventually leads to a conversion
Flight: (refer to duration)
Follow-up interview: A more in-depth meeting that often includes members of the team that the applicant will be working with
Follower: Someone who opts in to receive updates from a business or brand on a social media platform
Footer: A navigation section at the bottom of a website
: The process of predicting the future demand for products
Forward rate: The percentage of recipients who click on the “share” button to post to social media or who click the “forward” button to send to others
Frequency: How many times an individual encounters an ad
Frequently asked questions (FAQ): A section on a website that provides answers to the questions that customers might have regarding a business, their products or services, policies, processes, and more
Fulfillment service: A third-party company that prepares and ships orders from their fulfillment centers                                                                                                                                                                                                


Generalist: Someone who is knowledgeable about many topics and has various interests
Geographic segmentation: The grouping of customers with regards to their physical location
: An animated image
Goal-based automated bidding: A bidding strategy where a marketer sets an ROAS or cost per action target to maximize the advertising goal at a certain efficiency
Google Ads: An online advertising platform where advertisers bid to display brief advertisements, service offerings, product listings, or videos to web users
Google Analytics: A web analytics service that tracks and reports website traffic
Google Business Profile: A tool that allows local businesses to tailor how their information appears on Google Search and Google Maps

Google Display Network: A group of websites, videos, and apps where ads can appear
Google knowledge panels: Information boxes that appear on Google when someone searches for people, places, organizations, or things that are available in Google’s knowledge database
Google Merchant Center: A tool advertisers use to upload their store and product data to Google and make it available for Shopping ads and other Google services
Google Search Console: A tool that helps users better understand how a website is performing on Google Search
Google Trends: A free Google tool that lets people explore what citizens around the world are searching for on Google
Googlebot: The generic name of Google’s crawler                                                                                                                                                                                        


Hashing: A security method which turns the personal information in email lists into randomized code
Hashtag: A word or phrase preceded by the pound symbol that indicates that a piece of content relates to a specific topic or category

Heat map: A data visualization tool that demonstrates how visitors interact with a website
Histogram: Shows individual data points that have been categorized into ranges, with the frequency of each range represented by the height of a unique column
Home page: The main page of a website
Horizontal bar chart: A 90-degree rotation of a vertical column chart
HTTPS: An internet communication protocol that protects the integrity and confidentiality of data between the user’s computer and the site
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS): A method of transferring information over the internet that protects the integrity and confidentiality of data between the user’s computer and the site           



Impression: When a piece of content is displayed to a target audience
In-house: Within a single company
Inclusive marketing: The practice of improving representation and belonging within the marketing and advertising materials that an organization creates
Incremental sales: The sales during a period of time that are above and beyond what a

business normally sells in that timeframe
Indexing: The process of Google saving and organizing website information to display in the search engine
Influence: The degree to which a stakeholder can convince people to take certain actions
Influencer: A person with the ability to influence potential buyers of a product or service by promoting or recommending the items on social media
Influencer-generated content: Any post created by an influencer that promotes a brand’s products and services
Influencer marketing: The process of enlisting influential people to endorse or mention a brand or product to their followers on social media
Influencer marketing platform: Software that provides influencer discovery tools such as large searchable databases of potential influencers
Informative report: A report used to provide company leadership with a broad understanding of campaign performance, focusing on larger metrics like return on investment (ROI) and other key performance indicators (KPIs)
Insight: Information that is discovered through research or data analysis and that can be actioned upon to benefit a marketing strategy
Insight report: A report that finds meaning in the data and aims to communicate that meaning at a high-level to stakeholders
Interest: The degree to which a project informs or impacts a stakeholder’s objectives
Interest targeting: Delivering an ad based on user preferences
Internal link: A link on a website that points to other pages on the site
Internet troll: A person who intentionally antagonizes others online by posting inflammatory, unnecessary, or offensive comments or other disruptive content                                                                                                                                                                                                     


Key performance indicator (KPI): A measurement used to gauge how successful a business is in its effort to reach a business or marketing goal
Keyword: A search term that people use to find information, products, or services online
Keyword research: The process of finding terms and phrases that people use in search engines
Keyword stuffing: The practice of loading a webpage with keywords or numbers in an attempt to manipulate a site’s ranking in the search results                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     


Landing page: The first page a visitor encounters when they go to a website
Last click attribution: Assigns all the credit to the last known touchpoint before conversion
Law of diminishing returns: An economic principle stating that if investment in a particular area increases, the rate of profit from that investment will eventually decrease if other variables remain constant
: A potential customer who has interacted with a brand and shared personal information, like an email address
Lead generation: The practice of collecting a potential customer’s email address
Lifetime ROAS: The result of multiplying the number of new customers by the total LTV and dividing the result by the ad spend
Lifetime value (LTV): The average revenue generated by customers over a certain period of time
Line chart: A chart in which individual data points for a changing variable are connected with a continuous line
Linear attribution: Assigns equal credit to each touchpoint along the customer journey
List growth rate: The rate at which an email subscriber list grows
List-based remarketing: Uses lists of existing customers or visitors who have provided their email address and shows specific ads to them
Live chat: A customer service technology that allows customers to communicate in real time with a business representative
Live View: A feature in Shopify that provides a real-time view of an e-commerce store’s activity as it happens
Local search: A search query that generates local-based search results
Local SEO: Optimizing content so that it displays in Google’s local search algorithms
Location targeting: Delivering an ad based on user location
Lookalike audience: People with similar demographics and behaviors who haven’t yet been introduced to a brand

Loyalty stage: The fourth stage of the marketing funnel, when customers become repeat customers and brand advocates

LTV to CAC ratio: The total LTV (total lifetime value) divided by CAC (customer acquisition cost)



Macro conversion: A completed purchase transaction

Macro-influencers: Influencers with between 100,000 and 1 million followers
Manual action: Google’s way to demote or remove webpages that are not compliant with its webmaster quality guidelines

Manual bidding: Managing bids based on the criteria the marketer selects

Margin of error: The statistically-calculated difference between a test result and the theoretical result that could have come from a test with a lot more users
Market research: The process of gathering information about consumers’ needs and preferences
Market size: The total number of potential customers within a specific industry
Marketing automation: The practice of using software, programs, and technology to create and implement applications to automate marketing tasks
Marketing funnel: A visual representation of the process through which people go from learning about a brand to becoming loyal customers
Marketing goal: An objective in a marketing plan or strategy that supports a business goal
Marketing mix models: Statistical models advertisers use to predict the effectiveness and ROI of an advertising spend
Marketing return on investment (ROI): A metric calculated by subtracting the marketing cost from the total sales growth and dividing the result by the marketing cost
Maximum bid: The highest amount a marketer is willing to bid on a platform; also known as the ceiling
Media mix: A combination of digital channels marketers use to reach their goals and how they divide their budget among them
Media mix models: (refer to marketing mix models)
Media plan: Contains details about where, when, and how often an ad will appear across all media channels
Mega-influencers: Influencers with 1 million or more followers
Meme: An amusing or interesting item—such as a captioned picture or video—that is spread widely online
Merge tag: (refer to personalization tag)
Meta description: Text that provides search engines a summary of what the page is about
Metrics: Quantifiable measurements that are used to track and assess a business objective
Micro conversion: A completed response that indicates a user is moving toward a completed purchase transaction
Micro-influencers: Influencers with between 10,000 and 100,000 followers
Microblogging: Blogging on a smaller scale; Ideal for distributing short-form content quickly and frequently
Minimum bid: The lowest amount a marketer is allowed bid on a platform; also known as the floor
Mobile-friendly webpage: A webpage that is designed to load quickly and render well on a phone screen
Monthly active users: Refers to the number of unique customers who visit a platform over a month-long span
Multi-channel customer service: Refers to providing customer service across multiple channels
Multivariable testing: (refer to multivariate testing)
Multivariate testing: A method of testing where two or more versions of content with several differing variables are compared to determine which combination yields better results                                                                                                                                                           


Nano-influencers: Influencers with 10,000 followers or fewer
Navigation bar: A collection of links to other pages within a website
Negative keywords: Search terms excluded from an ad campaign
Net profit: The amount of money left over after expenses are paid
Net profit margin: The percentage of revenue left over after expenses are paid
Net Promoter Score (NPS): A metric that helps predict future customer engagement by asking customers, “How likely is it that you would recommend our product to a friend?”
Net Promoter Score (NPS) survey: A single-question survey that asks respondents to rate the likelihood that they would recommend a company, product, or a service to a friend or colleague on a scale from zero to ten
Newsletter: An email sent to subscribers on a regular basis, containing news and informational content relevant to the company and of interest to subscribers                                                                                                                                                                                                  


Off-season: The period where customers tend to take more time in making purchases, especially if it’s for a larger ticket item
: The integration or synchronization of content on multiple channels
Online advertising: A form of marketing which uses the internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers
On-season: The period where customers are much more likely to buy products due to related weather variables or special events
Open captions: Subtitles that are embedded directly in video and can’t be hidden or turned off by users
Open rate: The percentage of users or customers who open an email

Open-source: Software that allows the user to access and edit the original source code
Operational report: A report that provides real-time updates and information on metrics like audience growth rates, impressions, click-through rates, and more
Optimization score: An estimate of how well a Google Ads account is set to perform
Order fulfillment: All the steps that take place between receiving an order and delivering the order to the customer
Organic results
: Search results not paid for by advertisers
Organic search: Unpaid results a search engine produces when a search is performed
Organic social media: Any social media activity that does not require a paid promotion
Owned media: All the digital content a brand fully controls                                                                                                                                          


Paid media: Any form of digital promotion a brand pays to put online

Paid results: Search results that advertisers pay to show whenever a user runs a search containing certain keywords
Paid social media: Displaying paid advertisements or sponsored marketing messages on social media platforms to target a specific audience
Pain point: A specific problem faced by current or prospective customers while interacting with a site
Payment service provider: A secure way to process transactions online
Pay-per-click (PPC) advertising: A type of advertising that allows the advertiser to pay only when someone clicks on an ad link
Performance goal: A target that has a measurable, numeric value
Performance marketing: The process of using concrete information about customer behaviors to plan and refine marketing and sales strategies
Performance Planner: A Google tool that allows an advertiser to forecast the impact of different spending scenarios and events during upcoming seasons
Performance reporting: (refer to data reporting)
Personalization: The practice of delivering a customized experience for each customer
Personalization tag
: A code that allows the writer to insert unique user data from their mailing list into emails
Personalized advertising: A type of advertising that relies on user interest or behavior data to determine the right audience for ads
Personally identifiable information (PII): Information that could be used to directly identify, contact, or locate an individual
PESTLE analysis: An audit that identifies political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors that may affect a marketing strategy
Phrase match: A keyword match type in Google Ads that shows ads when someone searches for a term that includes the meaning of a keyword
Pie chart: A chart that shows data with partial and whole results
Pillars of social media marketing: The pillars that can help guide an effective social media marketing campaign: strategy, planning and publishing, listening and engagement, analytics and reporting, and paid social media
Pivot table: A visualization that changes the view of data in a spreadsheet to a different perspective to categorize it or to identify an insight or trend (without changing the data itself)
Pixel-based remarketing: A process that sends ads automatically to users after placing a cookie into their web browser that tracks the pages and products they view
Podcast: An episodic series of digital audio files that users can download to a personal device to listen or read a transcription
Point of diminishing returns: The point at which revenue-to-ad spend is at its highest
Points model: A rewards program that offers customers a point equivalent for a determined monetary value spent over the course of several purchases
Portfolio: An edited collection of an individual’s best projects intended to showcase work experience, style, or methods
Post-purchase communication: Any direct interaction customers have with a brand after they make a purchase
Potential reach: A metric that measures how many people have potentially seen a post
Power grid: (refer to stakeholder map)
Predicted lifetime value (pLTV): The predicted revenue generated by customers over a period of time that includes the future
Predictive analytics: Uses historical data to predict what might happen
Preliminary interview: A fast-paced meeting conducted over a phone call or video chat
Preview text: Text next to an email’s subject line in the inbox that gives extra insight into what’s inside the email
Primary research: Research obtained first-hand
Privacy policy: A legal document that discloses some or all of the ways a business gathers, uses, discloses, and manages a customer’s data
Product analytics: Monitoring and evaluating data to gain insights into how users interact with a product or service
Product description: The text on the product detail page of an e-commerce store that provides details and information to customers about the product
Product detail page (PDP): A page on an e-commerce site that provides information about a specific product
Product conversion rate: The percentage of customers who purchase a product after viewing it
Product recommendation engine: Software that uses artificial intelligence to analyze customers’ data, learn which products might interest them, and display those products to the customer
Product sourcing: How a business acquires the products they sell to customers
Product viability: The sales potential for a specific product
Promoted post: A social media post that a marketer pays the platform to make more visible
Promotional email: An email sent out to inform subscribers of new or existing products or services
Property: A website, mobile application, or web page that is associated with a unique measurement ID in Google Analytics to enable metrics collection
Psychographic data: Refers to information based on customers’ activities, interests, and opinions
Python: A programming language used for data analysis and data visualization                                                                                                                                                                                                


Qualified traffic: Traffic made up of visitors who are likely to become customers
Qualitative data: Information that describes qualities or characteristics
Quality control: The process through which a business seeks to ensure that product quality is maintained or improved
Quantitative data: Information that can be counted or compared on a numeric scale
Quarter: A three-month time period based on a company’s financial calendar
Query: The words typed into a Google Search bar           



Rank: A webpage’s position in the search engine results pages (SERPs), which is determined by an algorithm
Reach: The total number of unique individuals who encounter an ad across their different devices
Real-time analytics: Monitors immediate data for insights to respond to events more quickly
Real-time marketing: A marketing approach that involves responding to current events, trends, or feedback in real or near-real time, almost always on social media
Redirect testing: A method of testing where two ads or webpages with different URLs are tested against each other to determine which yields better results
Referral: Refers to how someone was guided to a website
Remarketing: A strategy in which a marketer uses paid ads to target customers who have visited a website, app, or social media profile
Remarketing ad: An advertisement delivered to previous purchasers, subscribers, or visitors to a brand’s website or social media
Replenishment emails: Emails used to prompt customers to make a repeat purchase when the items they previously bought are about to run out
Repurposing content: The process of recreating and republishing content in different formats
Responsive display ad: A display ad that automatically adjusts its size, appearance, and format to fit available ad spaces
Responsive website: A website that is designed to work on all types of devices, including computers, mobile phones, and tablets
Resume: A document created and used by a person to present their background, skills, and accomplishments
Retention email: An email sent to a current customer with the intent of keeping them as a customer
Return on ad spend (ROAS): How much revenue is gained versus how much was spent
Return on investment (ROI): A ratio of net income (money made) to investment (money spent)
Return policy: A document that describes, in detail, a business’s process and requirements for accepting returns
Return rate: The percentage of products sold that are returned by customers
Revenue-per-click: The average revenue for each individual click on all of a company’s pay-per-click keywords and ads
Rewards program
: A marketing strategy designed to build customer loyalty by providing incentives for customers to continue shopping with the brand
Rich results: Enhanced results in Google Search with extra visual or interactive features
Rule of seven: A marketing concept that states a potential customer must see a message at least seven times before they’re ready to take action                                                                                                                                     


Schema: The type of code used for structured data markups
Screen enlargement application: Technology that helps users see content more easily by magnifying text and images on a computer or digital device screen
Screen reader: An application that converts text, buttons, images, and other screen elements into speech or Braille
Search algorithm: An automated process that helps locate information to answer a user’s query
Search campaign: Text ads that appear on search results when people search on Google for related products and services
Search engine: Software that provides information on a search query
Search engine marketing (SEM): Increasing a website’s visibility on a search engine results page through paid advertising
Search engine optimization (SEO): The process of increasing the visibility of website pages on search engines to attract more relevant traffic
Search engine results pages (SERPs): The results pages that appear when someone performs a search query
Seasonality: The regular and predictable fluctuation of e-commerce traffic around special holidays, events, and weather on a quarterly or yearly basis
Secondary research: Research done by others
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate: A digital certificate that authenticates a website’s identity and enables an encrypted connection
: A subset of analytics data that features a common characteristic; examples are a user segment, an event segment, or a session segment
Segmentation: The practice of dividing an email subscriber list into smaller groups based on criteria like interests, location, or purchase history
Session recording: A rendering that captures a visitor’s actions as they navigate a website, including mouse movement, clicks, taps, and scrolling
Shopping campaign: Product listings that appear on search results and the Google Shopping tab
Sitemap: A file that provides information about the pages, videos, and other files on a site, and the relationships between them
SMART: A goal-setting method that can help define and measure the success of the goals of a campaign; Stands for “specific,” “measurable,” “attainable,” “realistic,” and “time-bound”
Smart bidding: Automated bidding strategies that use machine learning to optimize for conversions or conversion value with each auction
Smart campaign: An automated campaign management tool within Google Ads that helps promote a business
Smart Shopping campaign: An advanced Shopping campaign that uses technology to optimize for more sales and reach Google shoppers across Google’s sites and networks
Social ads: Paid advertisements on social media platforms targeted to social media users
Social listening: Refers to tracking and analyzing conversations and trends related to a brand
Social listening tool: Software that helps track mentions of a brand, relevant keywords, and direct feedback from multiple social media platforms in one place
Social media: Any digital tool that enables users to create and share content publicly
Social media algorithm: A way of sorting posts in a user’s feed based on relevancy rather than the order in which they are published
Social media analytics: The process of collecting data from social media platforms and analyzing that data to make business decisions
Social media calendar: A calendar of all social media posts
Social media engagement: Refers to the actions people take on social media, such as likes, favorites, comments, shares, Retweets, saves, clicks, hashtags, and mentions
Social media marketing: The process of creating content for different social media platforms in order to drive engagement and promote a business or product
Social media report: A document that presents relevant data and analysis about a brand’s social media activities
Social media sentiment: The attitude and feelings people have about a brand on social media
Social media target audience: The specific group of people a company wants to reach on social media platforms
Social share: When a customer shares a product or service with their social media followers
Social testing: A process that provides data-driven insights about a brand’s social media performance and audience preferences
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS): Web-based software available on a subscription basis
: Unsolicited and unwanted junk email sent out in bulk to a broad recipient list
Specialist: An expert in a specific field
Spend-based automated bidding: A bidding strategy where a marketer sets a daily budget to maximize their advertising goal
Spend-based model: A rewards program that offers customers incentives based on an amount spent during a single purchase
Split testing: (refer to A/B testing)
Stakeholder: Someone with an interest in or a concern for a project and its results
Stakeholder map: A grid with four quadrants and two variables—interest and influence—that can be used to keep track of the influence and needs of stakeholders and the level of communication required to work with them
STAR method: A strategy for answering interview questions that focuses on a specific situation, task, action, and result
Statistical significance: A determination of whether a test result could be due to random chance or not
Stock keeping unit (SKU): A unique code that retailers use to identify a product
Strategy: A plan to achieve a marketing goal
Structured data: Code used to describe a webpage’s content better to search engines
Structured query language (SQL): The standard language used to communicate with databases developed by different vendors and hosted on multiple platforms
Subdomain: The subset of a larger domain used to organize an existing website into a different page URL
Subject line: The first text recipients see after the sender’s name when an email reaches their inbox
Subpage: A lower-level page that appears below the homepage of a website
Subscription model: A rewards program that requires customers to make a recurring payment in order to receive an exclusive incentive
Suggested bid: A recommended bid range          
Supply chain: The flow of goods from the beginning stage of sourcing raw materials all the way to the finished product that is delivered to the customer
SWOT analysis: An audit that identifies a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats                                                                                                                                                                                            


Tactic: An action a marketer takes to make a marketing goal happen
Tag management system (TMS): Enables the deployment and management of many tags for multiple advertising platforms and systems in a simple and centralized way
Target audience: The group of people most likely to purchase a company’s products
Targeted location: The towns, cities, or countries in which an ad will appear
Terms of service: Legal agreements between a business and customers
Theme: A pre-built website template that creates the design and layout of an e-commerce store
Third-party cookies
: Cookies that aren’t developed and distributed by a website’s owner but are distributed through third-party tools
Tier-based model: A rewards program that allows customers to graduate to new customer status levels based on the amount of money they spend with a company over time
Tone: How a brand’s voice is applied
Total LTV: The average revenue generated by customers over a period of time that includes the past to the present
Touchpoint: Any interaction a customer has with a brand during their purchase journey
Traditional advertising: Non-digital ad placements, like newspapers, radio, TV, or billboards
Traffic: The number of visits that a website receives
Transferable skills: Skills from other areas that can help someone progress in a career in marketing
Transport Layer Security (TLS) certificate: (refer to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate)
Tweet: Any message posted to Twitter; May contain elements like text, photos, videos, links, and audio



Unique selling proposition (USP): An explanation of why a product or service is better than the competition
Unsubscribe rate: The percentage of email recipients who unsubscribe from a send list after opening an email
Upselling: A sales technique used to encourage customers to spend more by upgrading to a more expensive product
URL: The address of a webpage or file on the internet
Usability survey: A survey that assesses the customer’s satisfaction with a company’s website and identifies any problems the customer may experience along their shopping journey
User experience: How a person—the user—feels about interacting with or experiencing a product
User-generated content (UGC): Any content created by people, rather than brands
UTM: A text tag added to a URL to help monitor that content



Variables: Refers to the segments, dimensions, and metrics configured in a Google Analytics account
Variants: Different versions of the same content served to users during an A/B test

Vertical column chart: A chart in which individual measurements are each shown as a vertical column
Video campaign: A Google Ads tool that allows businesses to place video advertisements before, during, or after YouTube videos and in the search results
Visitors: The total number of times people have been to a website or app as a result of clicking an ad
Visual hierarchy: A structured organization of visual components that groups elements together, places elements in a natural or predictable pattern (such as reading from left to right), or leads to the most important elements to click on                                                                                                                                                                                                                


Web accessibility: The practice of designing and developing a website or mobile app so that people with disabilities can use it
: A presentation, typically educational, that is provided online
Webpage title
: An element that provides both users and search engines with a page’s topic
Webpage title element
: Text that provides both the users and search engines with a page’s topic
Website prompt
: A digital banner that calls on a website visitor to act in some way
Welcome email: An email sent out to brand new customers or subscribers